skip to content | Accessibility Information


Project title:

REACT4C: Reducing Emissions from Aviation by Changing Trajectories for the benefit of Climate

Principal investigators:

Prof. David S. Lee, Dr Ling L. Lim, Dr Bethan Owen, Dr Rubén Rodriguez De León


European Commission


January 2010 to January 2013




‘REACT4C’ is a Medium-Scale Collaborative Project of the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme under the Specific Programme ‘Cooperation’ and the research theme ‘Transport: Flight and Air Traffic Management’.  The project is coordinated by the DLR Institute of Atmospheric Physics.


The main objectives of REACT4C are to:

  • explore the feasibility of adopting flight altitudes and flight routes that lead to reduced fuel consumption and emissions, and lessen the environmental impact;
  • estimate the overall global effect of such ATM measures in terms of climate change.

In total, the project comprises 8 participants from 6 European countries. The research topics are organized in 8 closely linked work packages. Their focus is to demonstrate that environmentally friendly flight routing is feasible without addressing the operational implementation of such advanced ATM procedures. REACT4C will however, deliver substantial scientific foundation and operational specification for novel ATM procedures. In addition, REACT4C will deliver fundamental concepts of aircraft that are better suited for environmentally flight routing.

MMU is the Leader for Work Package 5 (WP5), ‘Simplified mitigation studies’. Our particular contributions to WP5 will be:

  • the production of emissions inventories for sensitivity studies;
  • to study the impact of modified flight trajectories on chemical composition using the global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) MOZART;
  • to study the total climate impact and tradeoffs arising from the changes in simplified flight patterns.

Other partners will be using the inventories produced to:

  • study the impact of altered flight trajectories on soot-cirrus and associated radiative forcing (RF);
  • study the impact of altered flight trajectories on contrail-cirrus and associated RF;
  • study the impact of modified flight trajectories on chemical composition using the OSLO CTM2 and the DLR Climate-Chemistry Model (CCM).

MMU is also involved in Task 4.5 of WP4, ‘Evaluation of mitigation effort’.    This task will produce a report on the uncertainties with respect to contrail and contrail-cirrus modelling in REACT4C.

In addition, through national funding, MMU is also contributing to other tasks in WPs 4 and 5, in which we will be conducting parallel analysis of the effects of NOX from varying cruise altitudes to mitigate against contrails to determine levels of co-benefits or otherwise.



Image used under Creative Commons from Surain Rajadurai